Since our last update, which was on March 3, the spread of the coronavirus has accelerated, and its economic effect has worsened sharply. Economic data remains scarce, but the long-awaited initial figures from China for January and February were much worse than feared. The spread of the virus, which the World Health Organization declared to be a pandemic on March 11, appears to be stabilizing in much of Asia. However, the increasing restrictions on person-to-person contact in Europe and the U.S. have sent markets reeling as risk-aversion rises and views on economic activity, earnings, and credit quality deteriorate sharply. As a result, we now forecast a global recession this year, with annual GDP rising 1%-1.5%.
China's first macroeconomic data capturing the effects of COVID-19 was much worse than expected. Industrial production in China fell a staggering 12.3% in January-February compared with the same period last year, four times the consensus forecast decline. Moreover, while assumptions around the peak timing of the virus turned out to be broadly valid, the projections around the path of the rebound now look optimistic. Risks of secondary infections are slowing the lifting of person-to-person restrictions, meaning the recovery is likely to be more drawn out than previously thought.
Restrictions on movement in Europe and the U.S. are putting a severe dent in economic activity. COVID-19 is affecting all aspects of life. Travel is being curtailed, with passenger counts down sharply. Schools are being closed. Mass gatherings such as sports events and theater are being postponed, with knock-on effects on related hospitality industries (see chart). Offices and factories are being shuttered as companies move to remote work. And, most recently, cities and parts of countries are in or moving toward lockdowns, with all but basic societal functions on hold.
Financial markets have gone into freefall, and volatility has spiked to levels last seen during the global financial crisis. Equities suffered double-digit percent losses the week of March 9 as markets began to factor in the consequences of COVID-19 on growth, earnings, and credit. Day-to-day fluctuations sent the closely watched VIX measure of volatility to its highest level since the global financial crisis. Moreover, credit spreads were their widest in more than a decade, and that wasn't limited to speculative grade. Liquidity stress spread as firms and households shed risk and sought high-quality, liquid assets. All of this was made worse by the collapse in global oil prices, with prices falling below $30 per barrel as major producers failed to agree on supply cuts to support the market.
Central banks have responded with increasingly aggressive actions. In an extraordinary meeting on Sunday, March 15, the U.S. Federal Reserve slashed its benchmark interest rate to effectively zero. It also moved to ensure financial-system liquidity, increasing its holdings of Treasuries and mortgage-backed securities, and expanded repo operations. The Fed and five other central banks announced an agreement to ensure dollar liquidity through the use of swap lines. Central banks in the U.K., Canada, and New Zealand cut policy rates in recent days as well, and the European Central Bank announced additional asset purchases and more long-term financing operations (but no policy rate cut).
As a result, we now forecast a global recession in 2020, with global GDP rising just 1.0%-1.5% in the full year.
The risks to our revised baseline remain firmly on the downside. There are several things to consider:
We will continue to monitor developments and update our forecasts as necessary.
The views expressed here are the independent opinions of S&P Global's economics group, which is separate from, but provides forecasts and other input to, S&P Global Ratings' analysts. The economic views herein may be incorporated into S&P Global Ratings' credit ratings; however, credit ratings are determined and assigned by ratings committees, exercising analytical judgment in accordance with S&P Global Ratings' publicly available methodologies.
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